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Home > Computer Resources > PC Processors Computer Processor History

PC Processors Early Computer Processor History 8086 Architecture

Computer CPU PC Processor

The history of the PC processor is  interesting and full of fierce competition and advanced technology, yet short in the terms of years. The modern history of PC CPU processors should have begun with a 5 MHz 8086 processor. Today we are routinely seeing CPU speeds in GHz. 20-some years made a huge difference in PC processor development .

It was 8086 that started Modern PC Processor History.

CPUs have gone through many changes through the few years since Intel came out with the first one. IBM chose Intel’s 8088 processor for the brains of the first PC. This choice by IBM is what made Intel the perceived leader of the CPU market. Intel remains the perceived leader of PC processor development. While newer contenders have developed their own technologies for their own processors, Intel continues to remain more than a viable source of new technology in this market, with the ever-growing AMD nipping at their heels.

The first four generations of Intel processor took on the 8 as the series name, which is why the technical types refer to this family of chips as the 8088, 8086, and 80186. This goes right on up to the 80486, or simply the 486. The following chips are considered the dinosaurs of the computer world. PC’s based on these processors are the kind that usually sit around in the garage or warehouse collecting dust. They are not of much use anymore, but many computer geeks don’t like throwing them out because they still work.

Pre Pentium CPU processor history Intel 8086 – 1978

This PC processor was skipped over for the original PC, but was used in a few later computers that didn’t amount to much. It was a true 16-bit processor and talked with its cards via a 16 wire data connection. The processor contained 29,000 transistors and 20 address lines that gave it the ability to talk with up to 1 MB of system RAM. Actually,  the designers at the time never suspected anyone would ever need more than 1 MB of memory. The PC processor was available in 5, 6,, 8, and 10 MHz versions.

Pre Pentium CPU processor history Intel 8088 - 1979

The 8088 is identical to the 8086 for practical purposes. The only difference is that 8088 PC processor handles address lines differently than the 8086 chip. This PC processor was the one that was chosen for the first IBM PC, and like the 8086, it is able to work with the 8087 math coprocessor chip.

Pre Pentium CPU processor history NEC V20 and V30 - 1981
These PC processors are considered as clones of the 8088 and 8086, but they were claimed  to be 30% faster than the Intel processors.

Pre Pentium CPU processor history Intel 80186 - 1980
The 186 was a popular PC processor. Many versions had been developed in its history. Buyers could choose from CHMOS or HMOS, 8-bit or 16-bit versions, depending on what they needed. A CHMOS processor could run at twice the clock speed and at one fourth the power of the HMOS chip. In 1990, Intel came out with the Enhanced 186 family. They all shared a common core design. They had a 1-micron core design and ran at about 25MHz at 3 volts. The 80186 PC processor contained a high level of integration, with the system controller, interrupt controller, DMA controller and timing circuitry right on the CPU. Despite this, the 186 processor never found itself in a personal computer.

Pre Pentium CPU processor history Intel 80286 - 1982
This 16-bit, 134,000 transistor PC processor was capable of addressing up to 16 MB of RAM. In addition to the increased physical memory support, this processor was able to work with virtual memory, thereby allowing much for expandability. The 286 was the first “real” PC processor. It introduced the concept of protected mode, an ability to multitask or having different programs run separately but at the same time. This ability was not taken advantage of by DOS, but future Operating Systems such as Windows could play with this new feature. There was some drawbacks of this ability. While this PC processor could switch from real mode to protected mode, it could not switch back to real mode without a warm reboot. This version of processors was used by IBM in its Advanced Technology PC/AT and was used in many IBM-compatibles. The processor ran at 8, 10, and 12.5 MHz, but later editions of the chip ran as high as 20 MHz. While these PC processor chips are considered paperweights today, they were rather revolutionary for the time period.

Pre Pentium CPU processor history Intel 386 - 1985 to 1990
The 386 pc processor signified a major increase in technology from Intel. The 386 was a 32-bit processor, meaning its data throughput was immediately twice that of the 286. Containing 275,000 transistors, the 80386DX PC processor came in 16, 20, 25, and 33 MHz versions. The 32-bit address bus allowed the chip to work with a full 4 GB of RAM and a staggering 64 TB of virtual memory. In addition, the 386 processors were the first chips to use instruction pipelining, which allows the processor to start working on the next instruction before the previous one is complete. While the processor could run in both real and protected mode, it could also run in virtual real mode, allowing several real mode sessions to be run at a time. A multi-tasking operating system such as Windows was necessary to do this, though. In 1988, Intel released the 386SX, which was basically a low-fat version of the 386. This version of PC processor used the 16-bit data bus rather than the 32-bit, and it was slower, but it thus used less power and thus enabled Intel to promote the chip into desktops and even portables. In 1990, Intel released the 80386SL, which was basically an 855,00 transistor version of the 386SX processor, with ISA compatibility and power management circuitry. 386 chips were designed to be user friendly. All processors in the family were pin-for-pin compatible and they were binary compatible with the previous 186 chips, meaning that users didn’t have to get new software to use it. In addition, the 386 processors offered power friendly features such as low voltage requirements and System Management Mode, or SMM, which could power down various components to save power. Overall, this chip was a big step for chip development. It set the standard that many later chips would follow. It offered a simple design which developers could easily design for. 

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